A combination of immunochemical, biochemical, bioinformatic and in vitro analysis of human neutrophil responses to mitochondrial DAMPs was used to demonstrate evolutionary similarity of five mitochondrial DNA-encoded, formylated peptides (mtFPs) to the canonical inflammatory bacterial peptide fMLF. Analysis of plasma from trauma patients showed that active mtFPs appear to circulate in significant amounts immediately after trauma and persist through the first week. The data suggest inflammatory mtFPs released by injured tissue may attract neutrophils to trauma sites while suppressing neutrophil responses to other chemoattractants.
For details see: "A subset of five human mitochondrial formyl peptides mimics inflammatory bacterial peptides and functionally deactivates human neutrophils." J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2018 Nov;85(5):936-943. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000001971